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Important Events in Hijri & Julian Dates:
-----------------------------------------
BH=Before Hijra, AH=After Hijra, AC=After Christ(Messiah).
Note: Please note that some of these dates are controversial.
----

The day of the Elephant(feel)       17 Moharram, 54 BH=Mon 10 Mar, 570 AC. 
the day Abrahah, the Ethiopian emperor attacked the Ka'aba with a big elephant
on the front line of his army.

The Prophet's(saw) Birthday         17 Rabii-I,  54 BH=Fri  9 May, 570 AC.

Imam Ali's(as)Birthday              13 Rajab, 24 BH   =Fri  9 Oct, 599 AC.

Mabaath, Angel appeared to the prophet on Sat 27, Sun 28 Rajab, 14 BH, and
delivered the message to him on Monday 29th of Rajab;as per a narration
for Abi-Abdillah(as), from Al-Hassan Bin Rashed, mentioned by Al-Shaikh in his 
book, Al-Misbahh.                   29 Rajab, 14 BH  = Mon 7 July, 609 AC.


        
Migration (Hijra) of the Prophet from Mecca to Medina:
------------------------------------------------------

-Sunday night (night of Monday in Arabic) 1 Rabii'-I, 1 Hijri [12 Sep. 622 AC]
  Ali sleeps in prophet's bed while he leaves Mecca to the Cave of Hiraa'.
-(night of Thursday in Arabic)Prophet departs from the cave to Medina.
-Arrives in Qiba, a suburb of Medina on the 12th of Rabii'-I [Friday 23 Sep, 622 AC].
 Prays Friday prayer in Qiba's mosque then moves to the inner Medina.

Battle of Badr:    17 Ramadan, 2 AH  [Wed 14 March, 624 AC]

Birth of Hassan, grandson of the prophet:  
                    5 Ramadan, 3 AH [Mon 18 Feb, 625 AC]

Batle of Uhud:     15 Shawwal, 3 AH  [Sat 30 March, 625 AC]

Battle of Khaybar: 24 Moharram, 4 AH [Fri 5 July, 625 AC]

Birth of Hussain, grandson of the prophet: 
                    3 Sha'ban, 4 AH  [ Tue 7 Jan 626]

Conquest of Mecca: 20-24 Ramadan, 8 AH [Wed-Sun 10-14 Jan, 630 AC]

Battle of Tabouk:  29 Rajab, 9 AH [Sat 10 Nov 630 AC]

Last sermon for the prophet:
                    25 Dhul-Qi'ada, 10 AH   [Sat 22 Feb, 632 AC]

Passing away of prophet:
                    28 Safar, 11 AH  [Sun 24 May, 632 AC]      


1st Caliphate, Abu Bakr:
------------------------

From: Monday  29 Safar, 11 AH     [25 May, 632 AC]
To:   Tuesday 22 Jumada-II, 13 AH [23 Aug, 634 AC],  2 year, 3 months, 20 days.

2nd Caliphate, Omar:
--------------------
From: 27 Jumadi-II, 13 AH  [ 23 Aug, 634 AC]
To:   27 Dhul-Hijja, 23 AH [  3 Nov, 644 AC],     10 years, 6 months.

Adoption of the Hijri Lunar Calendar:
--------------------------------------
Epoch (start) of Hijri Calendar as per Omar, set in year 17 AH to: 1 Moharram, 1 H  = Fri 16 July, 622 AC, the year that the prophet migrated to Medina. 

3rd Caliphate, Uthman:
----------------------
From: 1 Moharram, 24 AH   [5 Nov, 644 AC]
To:   ? Dhul-Hijja, 35 AH [June, 656 AC],   12 years less 3-18 days.

4th Caliphate, Ali:
-------------------
From: 12 or 27 Dhul-Hijja, 35 AH [11 or 26 June, 656 AC]
To:   Thu 21 Ramadan, 40 AH      [28 Jan, 661 AH]
                   

Chronology of Some Major Events in Islamic History


Hijri

Julian/Gregorian

         Event

Notes

-54

570

The year of Elephant. Abraha attaks the Ka’aba

The prophet is born 12 or 17 Rabi’-I (Friday )

 

-14

609

Start of the descending of the Revelation

 

1

622

Emigration from Mecca to medina

 

8

630

First pilgrimage to Mecca.

 

11

632

Islamic constitution in Mecca

Pass away of Zahra

11

632

Passing away of the Prophet Mohammed.

 

11-13

632-634

1st Islamic Caliphate, Abu Bakrbin abi-Qahafa

 

13-23

634-644

2nd Islamic Caliphate, Omar bin al-Khattab

 

15

636

Byzantines withdrew from greater Syria.

 

17

638

Hijri lunar calendar adopted. Epoch pushed back to 1 Moharram.

Capture of Jerusalem by Omar.

 

18-25

639-646

Egyptian campaign.

 

21

642

Arabs control Mesopotamia,Western & Central Persia.

 

24-35

644-656

3rd Islamic Caliphate, Uthman bin A’ffan

 

30

651

Occupation of Persia

 

35-40

656-661

4th Islamic Caliphate, Ali bin abi-Ttaleb

Friday 18/12/35 Hijri

37

657

Battle of Saffin. Emergence of the Kharijite sect.

 

40-132

661-750

Umayyad Dynasty, capital: Damascus.

 

60

679

Capture of Carthage, Tunisia

 

 

691-692

Jerusalem's Dome of the Rock, built.

 

91

710

Moslems reach the Indian delta

 

92

711

Capture of Qordoba, Spain by the Berbers & Arabs

 

102

721

Capture of Narbonne, Spain by the Berbers & Arabs

 

114

732

Defeat of the Andalus’ governer at Poitiers, France

 

 

747

Revoltution against the Umayyads, in Khorasan led by Abu Moslem.

 

132-656

750-1258

Abbassid caliphate established, capital Baghdad

 

139-422

756-1031

Ummayad prince ‘Abdurrahman ibn Mohammed al-Dakhil escapes Syria to Andalus to establish  the sole surviving Ummayad caliphate in Qordoba, Andalus

 

148

765

d. Ja’far al-Sadiq, the 6th Shia’ Imam, split of followers to Imamites (12ers) and Ismailites, followers of his son Ismail.

 

150-241

767-855

Emergence of the main 4 Sunni sects.

 

256-303

870-915

The six official Hadith (narration) books authored.

 

260

874

Occulation of al-Mahdi, the 12th Shi’a Imam.

b. 15 Sha’ban 255 AH

   Thu 28 July, 869

311

923

d. Historian al-Tabari

 

338

950

Coding of the seven accents for reading the Quran

 

357-567

968-1171

Fatimid caliphate established in North Africa

 

359

970

Al-Azhar mosque built in Cairo by the Fatimid caliph al-Moa’taz.

 

428

1037

d. Ibn Sina, master of the Encyclopedia of Medicine

 

447-656

1055-1258

Almoravids, then Almoahhids (1147)

 

489-690

1096-1291

The 4 Crusades

launched  to gain control of Jerusalem.

 

495-496

1102-1103

Conversion of Ghana, Africa to Islam.

 

504

1111

d. Theologist al-Ghazali.

 

583

1187

Salaheddine (Saladin) retrieves Jerusalem form the Crusaders.

 

594

1198

d. Philosopher Ibn-Rushd (Averroes).

 

 

1220

Genghis Khan took Samarkand and Bukhara, after conquering China earlier.

 

637

1240

d. Mystic Ibn-A’arabi.

 

648-923

1250-1517

Mamlouks’ dynasty established in Egypt & Syria

 

656

1258

Fall of Baghdad under Hulagu Khan-Mongol leader. End of Abbasids’ dynasty.

 

658

1260

the Mongols moved against Palestine and Egypt. the Mamluks were able to marshal their forces in time to meet, and crush, the Mongols at 'Ayn Jalut near Nazareth in Palestine.

 

 

667

1269

Mecca is under the control of Egypts’ Mamlouks.

 

700

1301

Uthman the 1st founds the Ottomon empire.

 

728

1328

d. Ibn Taymia, the Hanbali theologist.

 

 

1380

 Tamerlane, who claimed descent from Genghis Khan. Under Tamerlane, the Mongol forces swept down on Central Asia, India, Iran, Iraq, and Syria, occupying Aleppo and Damascus and threatening - but not defeating - the Mamluks.Battle of Marj-Dabiq, Mongols defeated.

 

857

1453

Capture of Constantinopole by the Ottomans. Expulsion of jews & Moslems from Andalus.

 

897

1492

The fall of Grenada, Spain. Columbus set for America.

2nd January

918-1188

512-1774

Rise of the Ottomans.

 

923

1517

The Ottomans defeat the Mamlouks of Egypt and take control of Mecca.

 

932

1526

Siege of Vienna by the Ottomans.

 

963-1119

1556-1707

Rise of the Mongol empire in India.

 

1018

1609

Expulsion of the last Moslems out of Spain.

 

1038

1629

The peak of Mongols(Moslems) architecture and possibly the most famous work of all times and cultures is the dazzling Taj Mahal mausoleum built at Agra, India

 

1188-1338

1774-1920

Decline of the Ottoman Empire

 

1206

1792

d.  Mohamad bin Abdul-Wahhab

 

1212

1798

Invasion of Egypt by Napoleon Bonaparte, the French Emperor.

 

1218-1220

1803-1805

Mecca and Medina fall under the Wahhabist

 

1314

1897

d. reformist Jamal Uddine al-Afghani

 

1341

1923

End of the Ottoman Empire

 

1342

1924

Abolition of the Caliphate by the Turkish parliament

 

1343

1925

Capture of Mecca and Medina by Ibn Sa’ud

 

1351

1932

Establishment of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA)

 

 

References:

http://www.islamicity.com/

http://www.barkati.net/english/chronology.htm

http://islamicweb.com/history/chronology.htm

http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/history/chronology/

 

 

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